The maximum on-the-spot fine for people caught littering will double from £80 to £150 from April next year.
New fines will also be introduced to punish people who throw rubbish from their vehicles, the government has announced.
The cost for those caught in the act has risen because of the money spent on cleaning streets and the countryside - nearly £800 million a year - and to act as a deterrent.
Councils will be allowed to impose fines on people if litter is thrown from their vehicle, even if it was discarded by someone else.
But the government has warned authorities not to use the fines simply as a way of raising money.
Environment minister Thérèse Coffey said: ‘Littering blights our communities, spoils our countryside and taxpayers’ money is wasted cleaning it up.
Littering blights our communities, spoils our countryside and taxpayers’ money is wasted cleaning it up.Environment minister Thérèse Coffey
‘Throwing rubbish from a vehicle is just as unacceptable as dropping it in the street and we will tackle this antisocial behaviour by hitting litter louts in the pocket.
‘These new fines will make sure the perpetrators, not the local community, bear the cost of keeping our streets and roads clean.’
The minimum on-the-spot fine will increase from £50 to £65, while the default fine will rise from £75 to £100.
The changes follow a public consultation as part of the country’s first Litter Strategy in April.
More than 85 per cent of those asked were in favour of increasing fixed penalties for littering.