The £1.5m project funded by Fareham Borough Council is due to start on Monday.
The work will include resurfacing the main 1,300m runway, repairs to taxiways and installing ducting so in the future runway lights can be put in.
Contractors Raymond Brown will carry out the work, with Hampshire County Council overseeing it.
Leader of Fareham Borough Council, Councillor Sean Woodward, said: ‘These improvements will support an application for a commercial licence for the airfield.
‘The licence will allow a greater variety of planes to use the airfield and encourage more businesses to join the already thriving aviation community at the site.’
The improvements to the runway are part of a £8.3m package of investment by the council at the Solent Enterprise Zone at Daedalus.
The council wants to transform it into a business destination, supported by the airfield and contributing towards the 3,500 new jobs target.
Other elements include the construction of a business Innovation Centre and the development of new hangar space.
This investment package is supported by the Homes and Communities Agency (HCA) which owns the airfield and the enterprise zone site.
Work on the runway will start on Monday and take around six weeks to complete.
The airfield will remain open for the duration of the work with the exception of weekdays between November 17 and November 30.