The 38-year-old has been appointed as director of football for the League Two club, who came under new ownership on Wednesday.
In addition, ex-Bristol Rovers boss Ben Garner is the Robins’ new head coach.
Swindon has been the subject of lengthy court battles between chairman loanee Lee Power and minority shareholder Clem Morfuni.
Amid the ownership fight, the Robins were under a transfer embargo, owed money to HMRC, possessed nine contracted players and were without a management team.
However, after Morfuni seized control, he has turned to Chorley.
The former Arsenal central defender made 31 appearances for Pompey after being recruited by Richie Barker in January 2014.
Yet following a solid start, his performances dipped and the ex-captain left in the summer of 2015, with incoming manager Paul Cook initiating an overhaul.
Chorley went on to spend three seasons at non-league Bromley, before retiring and turning his attention to working in football recruitment.
In a statement on Swindon’s website, Morfuni said: ‘I have known Ben Chorley for 5 years. Ben had a long successful career as a player and is incredibly knowledgeable about football and has a great knowledge on players.
‘When I came to the club, it didn’t have a head of recruitment or chief scout which I thought was completely wrong. The most important part of building a successful team is recruiting the right players.
‘Ben was actively involved in the recruitment for a couple of years at the club and helped the club make some excellent signings over that period.
‘I have full faith that, given time and support, he will be able to build and put in place the correct infrastructure at the club and make the correct acquisitions to implement my vision.
‘I’m a football fan at heart who supports Swindon Town and I have a very clear vision on what the principles under-pinning the Club are to be, and I have complete faith in Ben that he can and will fully implement this.’
A message from the Editor, Mark Waldron
The News has launched a subscription offer which gives you unlimited access to all of our Pompey coverage, starting at less than 14p a day.
You can subscribe here to get the latest news from Fratton Park - and to support our local team of expert Pompey writers.