The new test only requires the individual to spit into a sample pot to be tested for current Covid-19 infection, the Department of Health and Social Care (DHSC) said.
The trial is due to be launched in Southampton this week - and over 14,000 people working in GP surgeries, universities and in other frontline roles have been recruited for the first phase.
The project is being jointly led by Southampton City Council, the University of Southampton and the NHS, the DHSC said, with the help of other public services in Hampshire.
Participants will receive test results within 48 hours and details of those who test positive shared with the NHS Test and Trace Programme.
There have been fears the existing swab test could be yielding a significant level of false negatives, potentially due to the difficulty in swabbing the sinuses and back of the throat.
Research from Bristol University and John Hopkins university has found up to 20 per cent of swab tests return false negatives.
It also provokes coughing and spluttering, putting health workers - already working in close quarters with the testee - at even greater risk of the droplet-borne infection.
It is hoped the new tests will significantly boost existing testing capacity and accessibility.
Health Secretary Matt Hancock said: ‘Saliva testing could potentially make it even easier for people to take coronavirus tests at home, without having to use swabs.
‘This trial will also help us learn if routine, at-home testing could pick up cases of the virus earlier.’
He added: ‘I am very grateful to everyone involved in the trial who is helping us develop our understanding of the virus which will benefit not only our but the global response to it.’
The test was developed by biomedical firm Optigene, and the DHSC said it is also looking at other non-swab, saliva-based tests from four other companies.
It said it is also working with a number of manufacturers ready to scale up production of the kits.
Professor Keith Godfrey, from the University of Southampton, said: ‘The health, social and economic impacts of lockdown cannot be underestimated.
‘Through this initiative we believe we can contribute to safely restoring economic activity within the city and region during national relaxation measures, whilst enabling people to regain their lives, work and education.’
The pilot is due to run for four weeks with testing on a weekly basis.