Mrs Braverman, who became the MP for Fareham in 2015, was called to Downing Street to be appointed Attorney General.
The barrister, who studied law at Cambridge University, the Sorbonne and New York City University, has previously represented the government on the Attorney General’s Treasury Panel.
She will replace Geoffrey Cox, who had served in the role since July 2018.
Mrs Braverman said: ‘I am honoured to be appointed as Attorney General for England and Wales and look forward to working with the many excellent government lawyers and officials.
‘I want to thank my predecessor Geoffrey Cox QC MP for leaving me with such a strong record to build upon.
‘One of my first priorities is to continue the Government’s work in rebuilding confidence in our justice system, particularly with victims.
‘I am proud to be joining the Attorney General’s Office, a unique and historic government department that makes law and politics work together at the heart of the UK constitution.’
In his resignation letter, Mr Cox referenced his way of ‘bluntly’ advising his parliamentary colleagues on Brexit.
In his letter, he said: ‘I bluntly told the House of Commons in September that they risked incurring the wrath of the British people by continually frustrating the result of the referendum, and that a reckoning at the polls would come.’
Mrs Braverman will inherit ‘the foundations’ of a review into the criminal justice system.
The letter continued: 'Good work has been done to lay the foundations for appropriate review of the workings of the criminal justice system, to take a firm grip of the problem of disclosure, to equip the CPS with the means to perform its essential functions and, in introducing new governance frameworks, to enable more effective superintendence of both the CPS and SFO.’
Mrs Braverman secured a 26,086 majority in the 2019 election – increasing her 2017 majority of 21,555
Speaking to The News at the election count, she said: '(The) election is a great endorsement of Boris Johnson's leadership - he's got a very authentic manner when it comes to campaigning.'
Referring to the PM meeting her then five-month old baby, Mrs Braverman said: ‘Boris said he hopes he'll vote Conservative one day.
‘He could end up rebelling - but not if I have anything to do with it.’
The reshuffle has also seen Sajid Javid resign as chancellor, saying ‘no self-respecting minister’ could accept an order to replace all of his aides in order to remain in post.